Saturday, 23 August 2014


Come, make in India, the new Prime Minster Shri Narendra Modi exhorted the world in his maiden Independence Day address from the Rad Fort of Delhi. Be it plastics or cars or satellites or agricultural products, come make in India". "We should dream of 'Made in India' products across the world. He is inviting multinational firms to set up manufacturing bases as part of his biggest push to fix in one go multiple economic problems including low employment generation, slow GDP growth, high inflation rate and high trade deficit. He emphasized that it is need to encourage the manufacturing and to channelize the strength of the youth through manufacturing.

The revival of manufacturing is the biggest challenge for the new government as the high inflation has kept interest rates high, impacting investments and demand. The first time since 1991-92 economic growth is the lowest in a decade, industrial growth has frozen and job growth has dried up. Meanwhile, infrastructure development has slowed and the fiscal deficit hangs like Damocles' Sword. There are a number of challenges which the economy is facing in the realms of basic necessities of life.

India's manufacturing activity contracted 0.7 per cent in 2013-14. Imports of the country is increasing year by year and averaged 5921.34 USD Million from 1957 until 2014, reached an all-time high of 45281.90 USD Million in May of 2011 and a record low of 117.40 USD Million in August of 1958. The country is heavily dependent on coal and foreign oil imports for its energy needs, machinery, gems, fertilizers and chemicals.

Exports in India is also increasing and averaged 4042.16 USD Million from 1957 until 2014, reaching an all-time high of 30541.44 USD Million in March of 2013 and a record low of 59.01 USD Million in June of 1958.  India’s main exports are engineering goods, gems and Jewelry, chemicals, agricultural products textiles and services. India is also one of Asia’s largest refined product exporters with petroleum. 

India recorded a trade deficit of 12228.60 USD Million in July of 2014 and Balance of Trade averaged -1879.18 USD Million from 1957 until 2014, reached an all-time high of 258.90 USD Million in March of 1977 and a record low of -20210.90 USD Million in October of 2012. The country had been recording sustained trade deficits due to low exports base and high imports of coal and oil for its energy needs.

He exhorting industry to Make India the manufacturing hub of the world will mean higher exports from the country and lower imports, reducing the trade gap. The 'Make in India' and 'Made in India' vision will be supported by requisite policy and implementation measures for enhancing the competitiveness of our manufacturing sector. We should strive to be a nation that does not import, but exports. The youth of the country should neither depend upon imported products nor compromise with the quality of product.

Modi's speech is visionary and path-breaking because manufacturing is necessary for employment and for trade expansion. In order to achieve this, the government would need to address issues such as reforms in taxation policy, including introduction of the GST, land acquisition, faster approvals, trade policy, etc.

It is a welcome sign to promote more engagement between the States & foreign countries in relevant fields. This initiative of the centre will provide for better federal structure and good initiatives by the concerned states. Our missions now will be required to pay much attention to trade and commerce beside usual political relationships between nations. It is one of the best ways to contribute by individual state and people to develop their nation.

Modi is right to invite MNCs to manufacture in India so that the countrymen can have employment using their skills. The similar message he has given from the rampart of the Red Fort on Independence Day. Hope this will keep going in positive direction. Wish you all the best wishes!

Wednesday, 20 August 2014

Opportunities and Challenges before Indian INCs

India business houses are flying high. Not only over the Indian sky, many Indian firms have slowly and surely embarked on the global path and lead to the emergence of the Indian multinational companies. With each passing day, Indian businesses are acquiring companies’ abroad, becoming world-popular suppliers and are recruiting staff cutting across nationalities. While an Asian Paints is painting the world red, Tata is rolling out Indicas from Birmingham and Sundram Fasteners nails home the fact that the Indian company is an entity to be reckoned with. There are examples of Indian companies already donning the mantle of an MNC. The companies which have operations around the world; the Aditya Birla group is an example. Ranbaxy is a great example of an Indian MNC. There is a dispute as to which was the first MNC. Some have argued that the Knights Templar, founded in 1118, became a multinational when it stumbled into banking in 1135. However, others claim that the British East India Company or the Dutch East India Company were in fact the first proper multinationals. But the first true Indian MNC is Ranbaxy. The present paper an attempt to analyze the growth of IMNCs and also discuss the challenges which they are facing in global market. 

1.  Introduction
These days we are living in the era of economic reforms. Several countries in the developed and developing world have started it. India has also adopted this policy in 1991 under then compelling circumstances. The reform included new industrial policy 1991, emphasizing upon globalization, liberalization and privatization. All these measures facilitated as well as compelled the Indian business houses to bring necessary improvements, and compete with the Multinational Companies (MNCs) and become global. The Indian global producers, in fact, faced and continue to face, some challenges. According to a senior analyst with Earnest & Young, Indian companies have come out of the pain, focusing on productivity and profitability. Top line companies are cash rich. The big boost has come with financial reforms and a strong rupee. The action is now mainly in the automotive, auto components, pharmaceuticals, IT and food business. The acquisition of the U.K.'s top steel maker Corus Group Plc by India's Tata Steel Ltd for $8 billion adds to the $2.68 billion spent by Indian firms during the first half of 2006 on 32 acquisitions of European firms. It does not include the $38 billion purchase of Arcelor SA by Mittal Steel Co., as the latter is not India-based. "The Tata-Corus deal is a shot in the arm in the globalization of Indian firms," said Bundeep Singh Rangar, Chairman of IndusView, the India-focused cross-border advisory firm. "Europe's multilingual, multicultural and fragmented marketplace means that Indian companies must buy their way into the European market." The Corus acquisition will be India's largest-ever global acquisition that will make Tata Steel the world's fifth largest steel producer with a capacity of about 26 million tons and combined sales of $24.4 billion. Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL) might also join the ranks of Indian companies buying in Europe if it acquires $2.52-billion Scottish company Wood Group, as reported in India's Economic Times newspaper.

2. Opportunities of IMNCs
Indian MNCs are on a shopping spree for companies globally. After acquiring over 75 firms in 2003, the Indian corporate are now in the process of expanding their mergers and acquisition activities to Spain, Brazil, South America and Europe. Merchant bankers working on some Indian assignments said that the sectors bullish on going global include auto, pharma, infotech, chemicals, light engineering, and entertainment. The M&A service of the CMIE reported that investment abroad by Indian companies in 2002-03 was $1,048 million. In 2003, there were 75 cross border M&A acquisitions by Indian firms, up from 36 deals in 2002. Indian firms have about 440 investments/joint ventures in the UK, mostly technology-oriented. India is the eighth largest investor in UK. In Singapore there are 1,441 Indian companies, 450 of which are technology enterprises. The top 92 Indian-American owned companies in the US generated business of $2.2 billion and provided full-time employment to about 19,000 in 2002. Indian companies have acquired 120 foreign firms in the period 2001-2003 worth $1.6 billion. Seven Indian companies are listed on the NYSE and three on NASDAQ. There are over 15 companies listed on the London Stock Exchange. In January 2004, the government removed the $100 million cap on foreign investment by Indian companies and raised it to the net worth of the companies. In fact, with over 75 Indian companies spreading their wings, creation of an Indian MNC index is in the offing. G Ravishankar, vice-president and head strategic advisory and M&A group of Meghraj Financial Services India, stated that, "The transition is rapid. We are seeing a mind set shift among several Indian companies. Indian companies have realized the competitive advantage of having large operations. That's why many companies are acquiring firms outside India and transmit the service part of the business here."  Mr. Kumar Mangalam Birla stated that, the age of the Indian MNC is here. This is one of the most visible outcomes of India's integration into the global economy. A key determinant of success for Indian companies will be our ability to strike global roots. We are well positioned for this challenge. The success of the Indian Diaspora is the stuff of legend. As individuals, we have a long tradition of striking roots across the world.

2.1 Opportunities in Auto sector - While the world was busy lauding the success of the fast-growing IT and services sector over the past few years, it did not notice the coming-of-age of the old economy brick and mortar businesses.
  • Passenger car exports have nearly trebled in the past four years, from 28,122 units in 1998-99 to 1,30,000 units in 2003-04. Revenue from the export of passenger cars shot up 47.85 percent during April-May 2004-05 to Rs 7.16 billion from Rs 4.84 billion in the same period last year.
  • Exports of two and three wheeler have crossed the 300,000 mark for the first time clocking around 3,33,000. By 2005, the industry expects 400,000 two-wheeler on foreign shores.
  • Commercial vehicle exports have also increased to an all time high of over 17,000.
  • India's export of auto components crossed the $ 1 billion mark in 2003-04. By March 2003, $850 million worth of the nuts and bolts were exported, up from $578 million in March 2002.
In percentage terms the growth during the year over the previous year have been almost 80 percent for passenger vehicles, over 49 percent for two and three wheeler and over 40 percent for commercial vehicles.

2.2 Opportunities in Aluminium business
  • Vedanta Resources, the holding company of the Sterlite group raised a record $1 billion last year in its maiden public offering on the London Stock Exchange. This was the largest sum garnered by an Indian company in overseas markets and the second largest IPO in Europe in 2003.
  • In 2003-04, nearly Rs 2,500 crore of the total turnover of Hindalco - Rs 1,800 crore from copper and rs 620 crore from aluminium - came from the international business, including exports from India.
2.3 Opportunities in Pharma Sector – Another space which is seeing hectic activity is the pharma sector.
  • Ranbaxy has set an aggressive target for itself - to become a $5 billion company by 2012. That would require a compounded annual growth rate in excess of 20 percent. Going by its present growth strategies, that goal should not be far away. The firm exports to over 70 countries, directly manages operations in 34 and manufactures in seven. It has 8,500 employees, of which 2,000 are overseas. In October last year, Ranbaxy entered into a research collaboration with GlaxoSmithKline Plc. This will be just another way in the company becoming a global player.
  • Dr. Reddy's Labs, which is the second largest pharma company in the country, has operations in many countries with its markets being in US, India and CIS countries and the UK. US and India contribute close to 70 percent of its sales. Dr Reddy's boasts of six FDA-inspected API (active pharmaceutical ingredients, or bulk) facilities and seven formulation plants, three of which cater to the US and European markets. It is also the only Indian company to have ever out-licensed three molecules to MNCs.
  • Aurobindo Pharma is already part global with eight subsidiaries across the world, two JVs in the US and a new acquisition in China. Half of its revenues come from exports, which accounted for 47 percent of the total sales in 2002-2003. This strength is derived from its strong presence in emerging markets of Asia, Brazil and Latin America.
2.4 Opportunities in Public Sector - It's not only the private sector that is in aggressive mode. Even public sector units are rearing their heads to join the global Indian takeover race though for different reasons.
  • In the last two years, ONGC has become a valuable company with a market capitalization of Rs. 122,000 crore. Now it wants to build bigger energy assets, both in India and abroad.
  • The reasons IOC has for going global are, in comparison, more market-driven. Its chairman M.S. Ramachandran feels that Southeast Asia and Africa offers great opportunities for the corporation.
3. Some Indian MNCs:                 
Following are the name of the some Indian companies which has become giant MNCs in the world;
  • Tata Motors sells its passenger-car Indica in the UK through a marketing alliance with Rover and has acquired a Daewoo Commercial Vehicles unit giving it access to markets in Korea and China.
  • Ranbaxy is the ninth largest generics company in the world. An impressive 76 percent of its revenues come from overseas.
  • Dr Reddy's Laboratories became the first Asia Pacific pharmaceutical company outside Japan to list on the New York Stock Exchange in 2001.
  • Asian Paints is among the 10 largest decorative paints makers in the world and has manufacturing facilities across 24 countries.
  • Bharat Forge auto Components Company is now the world's second largest forgings maker. It became the world's second largest forgings manufacturer after acquiring Carl Dan Peddinghaus a German forgings company last year. Its workforce includes Japanese, German, American and Chinese people. It has 31 customers across the world and only 31 percent of its turnover comes from India.
  • Essel Propack is the world's largest manufacturers of lamitubes - tubes used to package toothpaste. It has 17 plants spread across 11 countries and a turnover of Rs 609.2 crore for the year ended December 2003. The company commands a staggering 30 percent of the 12.8 billion-units global tubes market.
  • About 80 percent of revenues for Tata Consultancy Services comes from outside India. This month, it raised Rs 54.2 billion ($1.17 billion) in Asia's second-biggest tech IPO this year and India's largest IPO ever.
  • Infosys has 25,634 employees including 600 from 33 nationalities other than Indian. It has 30 marketing offices across the world and 26 global software development centres in the US, Canada, Australia, the UK and Japan.
  • Sundram Fasteners is not merely a nuts and bolts company. It believes in thinking out of the box. Probably that is why it decided to acquire a plant in China. The plant in Jiaxin city in the Haiyan economic zone has ensured one fact: that its customers who were earlier buying Sundram products in Europe and the US, did not have to go far from home to access the product.
Indian Companies on a buying spree
Price (in $ millions)
Reliance Industries
Flag Telecom,Bermuda
Trevira Germany
Tata Motors
Daewoo, Korea
Infosys Technologies
Expert Information Services, Australia
Bharat Forge
Carl Dan Peddinghaus, Germany
RPG (Aventis) Laboratories, France
CP Pharmaceuticals, UK
Cadila Health
Alpharma SAS, France
Straits Ply, Australia
NerveWire Inc, US
Aditya Birla
Dashiqiao Chem, China
United Phosphorus
Oryzalin Herbicide, US

Source: Wall Street Journal; IBEF Research

4. Emerging Challenges
The process of economic reforms in India had led to an 'unequal competition' a competition between 'giant MNCs' and ‘dwarf Indian MNCs (IMNCs)'. Today, IMNCs are facing several challenges. Some of them are as follows:

4.1. Price Challenge: Price is a big challenge for Indian MNCs, foreign companies are able to sell their products at cheaper rates, and often they have as resorted to dumping, as China has done. They have forced on IMNCs to reduce their prices; otherwise they will not be able to stand in the market. Earlier, their basic philosophy was cost plus pricing with attractive profits as there was seller's market. With the buyer's setting in it will no longer be easy for one firm to pass on cost escalations automatically to buyers, as they used to do it all along. This position will, in its turn throw up new pressures on margins and profits enjoyed by them. Now only through effective cost control, productivity, competitive pricing and quality assurance, can business houses ensure their sales and profits with reference to price and profit margin, the cost reduction has become quite imperative as for several products, we do not have competitive pricing. For example, the relative cost of manufacturing of Indian and Chinese car may be seen from the following table-

Relative Cost of Manufacturing
           India     (Rs)
            China  (Rs)
Raw Material
Salaries & Wages
Source: Business World, Jan 19, 2004, p-32.

It is reflected from the above table that the Total Cost of manufacturing a car in India is Rs. 100 and in china is Rs. 77. So, it is 23% cheaper to make a car in China, as compared to India. Hence, we would have to pay proper attention in cost to reduction and control to have a competitive price.

4.2. Product Issue: With increasing competition, we have been forced to improve the quality of our product. Globalization has led to the challenge of international competitiveness in a global knowledge based economy. Trying to reach global customers in this globalize economy is another formidable task for the marketers and managers of today. Today quality of the products has assured an important role in the world as well as India. Today, the very existence of a manufacturer depends on the level of quality. Good quality ensures higher profitability, creates goodwill, and makes the employment of highly skilled manpower with better wages possible. Quality concessions has necessitated to adopted TQM, Quality circles, ISO certification etc. on business houses have started laying due to attention to this quality aspect, to the benefit of consumers.

4.3. CRM: Customer relationship management (CRM) has become a buzzword today and it is an important issue in the era of globalization. In this competitive world the customers creation, maintaining customers, provides after sale service have assumed greater significance. The success of every business house in, implementing the CRM will depend on how effectively it is adopted by the organizations. Gartner has pointed out that CRM is a business strategy with outcomes that optimize profitability, revenue and customer satisfaction by organizing around customer segments, fostering customer-satisfying behaviors and implementing customer-centric processes. The basic premise of relationship management is to build and maintain long term relationships with customers based on trust and commitment.
4.4 Ethical Aspect : Business ethic refers to the system of moral principles and rules of conduct applied to business. It means business should be conducted according to certain recognized moral standards. It is the set of moral principles that governs the actions of an individual or a group.  What is ethical and what is unethical in general society may not be the same in business. This is because; business operates in different environments and with different objectives. In the era of globalization, objective of the business centered around profit and wealth maximization.

4.5. Legal Aspects: The legal challenges are influence the development and sustenance of business houses in India. There are a number of laws that regulate the conduct of the business. They cover such matters as standards of product, promotion, packaging, ethics, environmental factors etc. In a number of countries, including India, the advertisement of alcoholic liquor is prohibited. Advertisements, including packaging of cigarette must carry the statutory warning that 'Cigarette smoking is injurious to health'. There are a host of statutory controls on business in India. Although the controls have been substantially brought down as a result of the liberalization, a number of controls still prevail. Certain changes in government policies, such as the Industrial policy, Exim policy, monetary policy, fiscal policy, tariff policy etc. may have profound impact on business. Some policy developments create opportunities as well as threats.

5. Conclusion:
Today the Indian business houses will have to update their technology, reduce their prices, improve the quality of their production, provide best services to customers, if they want to sustain and develop. The challenges, stated above, pose several threats but at the same time provide opportunities to them. They should make efforts to re-organize, unite weak and strong units, re-think about their strategies and focus more and more attention to the demands of demanding customers, keeping in mind that only the fittest will service in the business world today. 


The insurance business was nationalized on September 1, 1956, by an act of parliament and it was opened for private players with the enactment of the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act 1999. The post-reforms period has been witness to tremendous growth in the insurance industry. The present study is an attempt to analyze the growth of LIC India and also discusses the investment pattern of the corporation.
Key words: Investment, Portfolio, Insurance, Insurance business

The Indian insurance business was nationalized on January 19, 1956, by taking over about 245 erstwhile companies with varying standard of efficiency. Since September, 1956, life insurance business has been carried on exclusively by the Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) which was established in 1956 as a Statutory Corporation under Section 3 of the Life Insurance Act, 1956 to carry out life insurance business. LIC has its Central Office in Mumbai and eight Zonal Offices at Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, Hyderabad, Kanpur, Bhopal and Patna. The Corporation also transacts business abroad and has branch offices in Fiji, Mauritius and United Kingdom. LIC also operates in overseas insurance markets through Joint Venture companies namely Life Insurance Corporation (International) BSC (C), registered in Bahrain, Kenindia Assurance Company Ltd. registered in Nairobi, Life Insurance Corporation (Nepal) Ltd registered in Kathmandu, in collaboration with Vishal Group Ltd, Nepal and Life Insurance Corporation (Lanka) Ltd registered in Colombo, in partnership with M/S Bartleet Transcapital Pvt. Ltd, Sri Lanka. An offshore company, Life Insurance Corporation (Mauritius) Offshore Ltd. registered in Nairobi is a Joint Venture Company between LIC of India and GIC of India with focus on non-life reinsurance business with active participation of GIC. LIC along with Life Insurance Corporation (International) BSC (C), Bahrain, New India Assurance Company Ltd. & Al Hokair group of Saudi Arabia have registered a Joint Venture Company, namely, Saudi Indian Company for Co-operative Insurance in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to transact both Life and Non-Life Insurance business. The operating License for this Joint Venture has now been granted by the local Regulator. A Representative Office in Singapore, for which approval from local Regulator has already been obtained, is being opened shortly. Through International Operations, LIC covered a total number of 62,840 policies and also generated a total premium income worth Rs.725.75 crores in the financial year 2008-09. The Life Fund of LIC as on 31.3.2009 amounts to Rs.8,07,317.43 crore. During 2008-09 the Corporation made payments of Rs.5962 crore under Death Claim cases, Rs.34744 crore under Maturity Claims and Rs.2812 crore under Annuities. Under Varishtha Pension Bima Yojana, the Corporation made payments of Rs.103.92 crore under Death Claim and Rs.641.12 crore under Annuities.


Reforms in Insurance Sector
Since the opening up of the insurance sector in 1999 with the enactment of Insurance Regulatory Development Act, the number of participants in the sector has been steadily going up, considering the vast potential in India. From six insurers in the year 2000, the number of players has gone up to 44 insurers operating in the life, non-life and reinsurance segments. There is much greater competition, today in the market, although there is vast potential of expansion in India. As many as seven insurance companies (life and non-Life insurance) are functioning as public sector enterprises viz., the Life Insurance Corporation of India, the New India Assurance Company Limited, the National Insurance Company Limited, the Oriental Insurance Company Limited, the United India Insurance Company Limited, the General Insurance Corporation of India and the Agriculture Insurance Company of India Limited. The public sector insurers are offering a variety of insurance policies ranging from Life insurance to Crop insurance.


The introduction of private players in the industry has added value to the industry. The initiatives taken by the private players are very competitive and have given immense competition to the on time monopoly of the market LIC. Since the advent of the private players in the market the industry has seen new and innovative steps taken by the players in this sector. The new players have improved the service quality of the insurance. As a result LIC down the years have seen the declining phase in its career. The market share was distributed among the private players. The following table shows the mane of the player in the market.

S. N.
Name of the Insurance Company
Agricultural Insurance Co
Bank and Public Ins Co
Bajaj Allianz General Insurance Co. Ltd.
Privately Held
Cholamandalam MS General Insurance Co. Ltd.
Privately Held
Export Credit Guarantee Company
Public Sector
HDFC Chubb General Insurance Co. Ltd.
Privately Held
ICICI Lombard General Insurance Co. Ltd.
Privately Held
IFFCO-Tokio General Insurance Co. Ltd.
Privately Held
National Insurance Co. Ltd.
Public Sector
New India Assurance Co. Ltd.
Public Sector
Oriental Insurance Co. Ltd.
Public Sector
Reliance General Insurance Co. Ltd.
Privately Held
Royal Sundaram Alliance General Insurance Co. Ltd.
Privately Held
Tata AIG General Insurance Co. Ltd.
Privately Held
United India Insurance Co. Ltd.
Public Sector
Source: IRDA
There are a total of 13 life insurance companies operating in India, of which one is a Public Sector and rest 12 are private sector enterprises. The list of Companies can be seen in the following table:

S. N.
Name of the Insurance Company
Nature of Holding
Allianz Bajaj Life Insurance Co
Aviva Life Insurance
Birla Sun Life Insurance Co
HDFC Standard Life Insurance Co
ICICI Prudential Life Insurance Co
ING Vysya Life Insurance Co.
Life Insurance Corporation of India
Max New York Life Insurance Co.
MetLife Insurance Co.
Om Kotak Mahindra Life Insurance
Reliance insurance
SBI Life Insurance Co
TATA- AIG Life Insurance Company
Source: IRDA

The LIC has the major market share of life insurance share. The market share of other life insurance companies can be seen in the following table:

Name Of The Player
Market Share (%)
Life Insurance Corporation of India
ICICI Prudential
Birla Sun Life
Bajaj Allianz
Sbi Life Insurance
Hdfc Standard
Tata Aig
Max New Yark
Om Kotak Mahindra
Ing Vysya
Met Life
Source: IRDA

 Investment Norms
The investment norms for the life insurance business can divide into two categories. These categories are-

Pattern of Investment
LIC has to invest not less than 75% of the life fund pertaining to individual assurances in government or government guaranteed securities and has some freedom of investment only in respect of less than 20% of the fund.

Types of Investment
S. N
                Type of Investment
Government Securities                                               
Government Securities or other approved Securities (including (i) above) 
 Not less than 50%
Approved Investments as specified in Schedule I

Infrastructure and Social Sector  
Not less than 15%

Explanation: For the purpose of this requirement, Infrastructure and Social Sector shall have the meaning as given in regulation 2(h) of Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (Registration of Indian Insurance Companies) Regulations, 2000 and as defined in the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority  (Obligations of Insurers to Rural and Social Sector)  Regulations, 2000 respectively.   

Others to be governed by Exposure norms as specified in regulation 5.
Investment in “other than approved Investments” can in no case exceed 15% of the fund.
Not exceeding 35%

Investment Norms for Pension and Group Schemes
The prescribed pattern of investment in respect of funds pertaining to group and pension businesses is different. Table - 5 shows the pattern of investment prescribed for the insurance business of the LIC.

Investment Norms for Pension and Group Schemes
Type of investment
IRDA Norms
Government securities
Not less than 20%

Govt. securities or other approved securities including (1) above
Not less than 40%
Balance in approved investment
Not less than 60%

Portfolio Management
The investment pattern of LIC can understand with the help of the following sub-headings:

Total Fund of LIC
The total fund of LIC refer to funds procured from life business such as premium income, provisions made for outstanding claims at the end of the year and reserves created for unexpected risks. Table – 6 is indicative of the total funds of LIC for the period from 1991-92 to 2008-09. The total fund of the LIC has been increasing from year to year. The average growth rate in total funds of LIC is 21.9%. The total funds of LIC have increased from Rs 35969.33 in 1991-92 to Rs 84087747.65 lacs in 2008-09. It shows the growing financial strength of the LIC.

Investment refers to the utilization of resources in order to increase income or production output in the future. The investments of the LIC are in the form of loans to government and government organizations. The average growth rate in the investment of LIC is 21.91%. The total investment of LIC has increased from Rs 32261.73 in 1991-92 to Rs 73052450.76 lacs in 2008-09. It shows the growing financial strength of the LIC.

Income from Investment
Income from investment is the money that we collect from our investments. It includes stock dividends, mutual fund distributions, and interest from CDs, interest-bearing bank accounts, bonds, and other debt instruments. The average growth rate in the income from investment of LIC is 16.94%. The total incomes from investment of LIC have increased from Rs 3573.86 in 1991-92 to Rs 4277572.55 lacs in 2008-09. It shows the growing financial strength of the LIC.

Investment pattern

The investment of the LIC in India and abroad during 2008-09 is given in the following Table.
Investment of LIC (during 2008-09)
(Rs in Crore)
Investment in India
Per cent


Other Investments

Investment out of India



Investments property


Source: LIC, Annual Reports, 2008-09

Social Sector Investment
The total investments of the Corporation for social sector amounted to Rs. 815483.95 crore as at 31st March, 2009. The Corporation subscribed an amount of Rs.35284.40 crore (face value) and Rs.18154.93 crore (face value) to the Securities of the Government of India and the new loan issues of the various State Governments respectively during 2008-2009. It has been the constant endeavor of the Corporation to provide security to as many people as possible and to channelise the savings mobilised for the welfare of the people at large. To meet this end, the Corporation has been promoting Social Schemes through investments in Infrastructure and Social Sector which includes:
  • Projects/Schemes for generation and transmission of Power,
  • Housing Sector,
  • Water Supply and Sewerage Projects/Schemes,
  • Development of Roads, Bridges & Road Transport.
The total Investment in these sectors during 2008-09 was Rs.21,775.57 crore as indicated in Table 10. The investments by way of Central, State and Other Government Guaranteed Marketable securities, Loans & Debentures to Infrastructure and Social Sector amounts to Rs. 5,30,159 crore.
Investment in Social sector
S. N.
Per cent
Housing -

A. Loans to State Governments for Housing Schemes

B. Loans to Apex Co-operative Housing Finance Societies & others

C. Debentures , Bonds etc. to Housing Finance Companies
Water Supply & Sewerage Schemes
Other Infrastructure


LIC was established to carry on life insurance business. Besides life insurance and group insurance, LIC undertakes the responsibilities of under-writing and subscribing new issues and advances, loans mostly to social sectors as major avenue for investment of its surplus funds. The working results of the corporation show substantial surpluses every year. However, in 2008-09, on account of the financial meltdown, the life insurance segment saw a downward trend. The first-year premium, which is a measure of new business secured, underwritten by the life insurers during 2008-09 was Rs 87,006 crore as compared to Rs 93,713 crore in 2007-08, registering a negative growth of 7.2 per cent. In terms of linked and non-linked business during the year 2008-09, 50.9 per cent of the first-year premium was underwritten in the linked segment while 49.1 per cent was in the non-linked segment as against 75:25 in the previous year. The shift towards the traditional segment is significant during the year 2008-09. The working results of the corporations show substantial surpluses every year. On the whole, the performance of LIC has been remarkable. However, the size of the corporation has become too giant and, like GIC, it has also be reorganized and spilt into subsidiaries to improve its efficiency further. At present it has a substantial market share, but in near future it is bound to reduce, as many private players and bank have started spreading their tentacles in this sector. However, the present study is not free from limitations. The study is based on secondary data collected from the insurance industry website process data base for the sample companies. Thus, the study possesses all the inherent limitations of the secondary data.